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The most common diseases of dogs and cats

The most common diseases that pets suffer.

1. Conjunctivitis 

Both cats and dogs have a predisposition to eye diseases. Certain breeds are particularly susceptible to conjunctivitis, for example, a Persian cat and a French bulldog, as well as kittens and puppies. Colds, allergies, bacteria, injuries, a foreign body, dust or sand in the eyes, and poor hygiene can provoke the disease.

Symptoms : lacrimation, purulent crusts on the eyes, redness of the mucous membranes of the eyes, itching, swollen eyelids.

Help : eyes must be cleaned of pus, remove crusts and rinse, for example, with a decoction of chamomile. Under the eyelid of an animal, tetracycline eye ointment is laid. The doctor prescribes eye drops, with the advanced course of the disease – antibiotics.

Prevention:  monitor pet eye hygiene, flush eyes of kittens and puppies, take measures at the first symptoms of inflammation.

2. Otitis

Dogs with long ears are particularly prone to otitis media. The disease can develop due to allergies, infections, cleaning the ears of the animal with a cotton swab (owners are not recommended to carry out this procedure on their own), water getting into the ears while swimming.

Symptoms : purulent discharge and smell from the ear, inflammation of the skin around, itching, pain. The dog shakes its head, tilting it towards the sick ear. Otitis is dangerous in that a perforated eardrum, inflammation of the membranes of the brain, which, in turn, can lead to the death of a dog, can occur in a neglected state.

Help: clean the sore ear with cotton swabs and apply an ointment containing zinc. The veterinarian can prescribe antibiotics to the sick pet, cleaning the sick ears with saline and special drops.

Prevention : remove the discharge in the auricle and around it, regularly bring the animal for a routine examination to the veterinarian. Make sure that no water gets into your pet’s ears.

3. Poisoning 

A fairly common problem for pet owners. A pet can be poisoned by eating something on the street. A cat can catch an already poisoned mouse. In addition, the cause of poisoning can be poor food, poisons in food or water.

Symptoms : lethargy, vomiting, loose stools, thirst. In severe poisoning, excitement and subsequent inhibition, convulsions, rapid breathing, photophobia, salivation and shortness of breath can be observed.

Help : flush the stomach of the animal, give a plentiful drink with activated charcoal, show the pet to the doctor.

Prevention : while walking with the dog, make sure that she does not pick up anything, does not eat or drink from unknown sources. It is better not to let the cat out onto the street.

4. Skin diseases

Among dogs there are a number of breeds predisposed to skin diseases – boxers, bulldogs, ridgebacks, schnauzers. In dogs and cats, food allergies, flea dermatitis, ticks, itching, fungi and bacteria that provoke pyoderma are common.

 

Among skin diseases, the most dangerous is ringworm, which can infect a person. The spores of the pathogen can enter the house on the soles of shoes, clothes or paws of the animal.

 

Symptoms: smell, scratching, itching, dandruff, molting, dull hair and its loss, lethargy.

 

Help: do not self-medicate, show your pet to the doctor.

 

Prevention : do not let the pet come into contact with animals suffering from skin diseases. If your pet is prone to allergies and dermatitis, you should choose a special diet for him and consult a veterinarian.

 

5. Helminthiasis

The most common disease among all pets . A dog or cat can become infected with helminths on the street or through bowls of sick animals.

 

Symptoms: weight loss and appetite (which, on the contrary, can be excessive), vomiting, bloating, poor coat, diarrhea, lethargy.

 

Help: in pet stores there is a fairly wide range of anthelmintic drugs – from tablets and drops to special collars. To determine what kind of helminths an animal has infected, you can take an analysis in a clinic.

 

Prevention: regularly give anthelmintic drugs to pets, make sure that the animal does not pick up anything on the street, and observe hygiene.

6. Rabies

The most dangerous and serious disease for all pets. It is characterized by irreversible damage to the nervous system, and is fatal.

The disease is transmitted from animal to animal through saliva and blood. The incubation period can last from several weeks to several months.

Symptoms: violent form of rabies is accompanied by lethargy of the pet, shyness, later – anxiety and aggression towards people. The animal refuses food and water, which is one of the characteristic signs of rabies – a throat muscle spasm occurs in an infected pet.

Later, the animal develops salivation, paralysis of the muscles and vital systems of the body, which leads to death.

During a mild (paralytic) form of rabies, animals become affectionate and try to be near the owner. Their lower jaw hangs, saliva begins to liberate profusely, it becomes difficult for animals to swallow food.

The atypical form of rabies is characterized by symptoms of enteritis and gastritis: the animal is exhausted, suffers from vomiting and bloody diarrhea.

Treatment : unfortunately, today there is no cure for rabies, sick pets are euthanized.

Prevention : in order to protect your pet from this deadly disease, you need to be vaccinated with a veterinarian.

Photo: www.dogway.ru

7. Plague of dogs (plague of carnivores)

A common disease, characterized by a severe course. The virus attacks the digestive, lymphatic, nervous systems and bone marrow cells.

Infection of dogs occurs through the respiratory tract and digestive tract, from where the virus enters the blood and tissues. The main source of the disease is infected animals, including wild ones , grooming items, feeders, and bedding.

Predisposing factors can be a cold, poor diet, lack of vitamins and poor living conditions for dogs.

Symptoms : the incubation period can last up to three weeks, at this time the symptoms do not appear, but the dog is already contagious. The first signs of the disease are lethargy, fatigue, ruffled hair, loss of appetite, vomiting, inflammation of the mucous membranes, diarrhea, fever and its subsequent decrease. Later, damage to the nervous system and seizures can occur. The disease is especially dangerous for puppies – mortality from plague among them ranges from 30 to 100 percent.

Help : it is necessary to keep the sick dog in a warm and dry room with darkened light sources, rinse eyes, give the animal light food. There are currently no specific medicines for dog plague. The veterinarian prescribes a comprehensive treatment, taking into account the condition of the dog and the symptoms. Treatment is also aimed at strengthening the immunity of the animal.

Prevention : it is necessary to regularly vaccinate dogs and monitor them, excluding their contacts with unfamiliar dogs. In addition, it is important to monitor the immunity of the dog, as weakened animals are more likely to tolerate the disease.

8. Cat’s plague

Cats are not susceptible to dog plague, another virus causes the plague of these pets. The source of feline plague is infected and disease-infected animals (after having plague, cats remain carriers of the virus forever).

Symptoms : the incubation period lasts up to 10 days. The disease is characterized by loss of appetite, fever, damage to the digestive system, respiratory system, heart, intoxication, dehydration and vomiting mixed with mucus and blood.

The disease is dangerous because in the case of an acute course, a sudden death of a cat may occur. Among kittens, deaths from cat plague reach 90 percent.

Help : urgent visit to the veterinarian. The disease is serious, is treated with intravenous and subcutaneous injections of saline and glucose. A sick cat is given antispasmodics, antiviral drugs, antibiotics, antiemetics, intestinal absorbents, and probiotics. You may need a blood transfusion from healthy and vaccinated cats.

 

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